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The personality is largely based on the set of experiences that the child is perceiving throughout his life andtheir way of being is considered not full until they reach adulthood, having a development process and going through some vital stages until it stabilizes, being able to undergo some variations, these being neither frequent nor very marked.
Ultimately, personality is a scheme of thought, a pattern of behavior and a way of getting emotional that is stable over time and in the different situations that arise. These patterns and schemes explain how the child perceives reality and how he interacts with the environment.
Being introverted or extroverted, being sensitive or insensitive, being intuitive or rational are all categories that reflect aspects of those patterns and that they define the child's personality. A way of being that in a small part is hereditary (endocrine action of some hormones, the child's ability to adapt, his mood) and in a large part is acquired and shaped by the environment that surrounds him (the family, the school, friends) and their life experience.
For years, multiple authors have wanted to establish theories of how personality develops. The two best known theories, while out of date in the time we live in, are: Sigmund Freud's theory of psychosocial development and Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. Thanks to these theories we have a basis from which we can start to talk about stages in the development of the child's personality.
Keep in mind that the limits of these stages are not very clear and it may be debatable where they begin and where they end, but there is consensus about what they are and how they occupy our lives.
- Early childhood (from 0 to more or less 3 or 4 years) When the child is born, it can be considered that he does not have a marked personality, since he has not yet had experiences that make him think or act in a certain way. But, as the days go by, we can observe a certain pattern of behavior: cry a lot or a little, respond with fear or curiosity, etc. These behaviors are part of the so-called temperament that has a biological and innate basis, that is, it is hereditary and is a component that acts as a basis for the construction of personality.
- Childhood (from 4 years to 7 years) As the child grows, he develops different cognitive and physical capacities that allow him to get to know and understand how the world works. This way you will see how you can influence and participate in it. Behavior patterns are acquired from temperament and their confrontation with the environment that surrounds them. In this stage, children acquire beliefs, norms that come from others, and values that they learn from imitation.
- Puberty (7-11 years) and adolescence (11-17 years) These stages go hand in hand. It is the point at which one passes from children to adults and, therefore, a key stage in the formation of the personality. It is a complex stage where the body is in a continuous process of change where different aspects and realities are experienced. The number of environments in which it participates increases, and the number of people with whom it interacts. In addition there are hormonal changes. All of this enhances your search for social bonding. It is a moment marked by the child's need to differentiate himself, thus a break with adults and relatives usually occurs and the questioning of everything that has been instilled in him Through experimentation the child tries different ways of seeing life, staying with some aspects of the experience and shaping others. He is looking for his own identity, which over time crystallizes into a differentiated personality.
- Adults (from 18 onwards) From adolescence we can speak of personality proper, since it is the moment where a stable pattern of behavior, thought and emotion is forged. The personality can still vary but its structure, broadly speaking, will already be similar unless some very relevant event occurs for the subject. As we get older and older, the personality continues to be stable but there begins to be a loss of skills along with other aspects that can affect the individual's way of relating to the world.
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