School Age

6-8 years: child development

6-8 years: child development

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Child development at 6-8 years: what's happening

Playing and learning
Your child's play is complex now, and he often plays out ideas he's come across at school or in the media. For example, you might find yourself serving dinner to a scuba diver, a rock star - or maybe even the Prime Minister!

Because your child is better at controlling her own behaviour and emotions, she also copes better with games that involve rules, as well as winning, losing and playing fair.

Your child also enjoys making friends and being a friend. Friendships give him a sense of belonging and help him learn and practise basic social skills like sharing and negotiating.

Friendships can also be challenging because friends can sometimes be bossy or cranky. Sometimes they might even leave your child out - for example, 'If you play with David you can't be my friend anymore!' Most of your child's relationships will be positive, but keep an eye out for signs of bullying.

Your child might also start to play more with children of the same gender.

Your child wants to please the important adults in her life, like her parents and teachers, so doing things the 'right way' becomes very important to her. On the other hand, she might sometimes seem over-confident.

Your child is easily embarrassed and sensitive to other people's views and beliefs. In fact, your child has lots of empathy for family and friends when they're distressed. But at times he can be very self-critical and might need your help to focus on the things he does well.

You might notice that your child is more aware of events she has seen or heard on the news, like natural disasters. This growing awareness of the world can cause some anxiety and fear, so talking about tough topics can help your child make sense of the world.

Your child has a much better understanding of the relationship between cause and effect. He begins to see how his actions affect other people, although sometimes he still seems self-centred.

Your child's memory is improving and she can group objects according to size, shape and colour. She has a good understanding of numbers and can do simple maths problems like adding and subtracting.

Be prepared for lots of questions as your child keeps exploring the world around him. You might find he'll do small experiments to see how things work - for example, he might fill up the toilet with soap and flush it, just to see what happens.

There's a lot happening at this age, so don't be surprised if your child gets distracted easily and forgets small requests and directions from you.

Talking and communicating
Your child can follow more complex directions and use language to explore her thoughts and feelings. The average eight-year-old learns about 20 new words per day, mostly through being read to or reading.

Your child now has longer and more complex conversations, and you should be able to understand all of his speech.

Your eight-year-old is learning to voice her opinions and has lots of energy and emotion when telling stories. She can follow a simple recipe, write stories about her activities, write an email or instant message, and read to herself in bed at night.

Your child enjoys testing his physical limits and developing more complex moving skills, like running in a zig-zag pattern, jumping down steps, doing a cartwheel and catching small balls.

Your child is getting better at combining gross motor skills like running to kick a ball or skipping while turning a rope. These physical skills depend on how often your child practises them. Structured sports like dance classes, tennis and soccer all help, but lots of opportunities to run, kick, throw, cartwheel and more are just as important.

Your child's fine motor skills are well developed now, so she can now brush her teeth and do other daily hygiene tasks without your help. She can cut out irregular shapes and write smaller letters inside the lines in her school books.

Daily life and behaviour
At this age, your child's life is all about his family, school, friends and after-school activities. He might enjoy collecting items like footy cards, shells or small figurines.

Your child's morals and values are developing, and she might share strong opinions about whether things are right or wrong. She'll also be more aware of what others are doing. This might lead to comparisons like 'She's better at drawing than me' or complaints about siblings getting more than her.

Your child is even more independent and wants more say in what he can and can't do. As part of this independence, he enjoys doing more chores around the house - at least sometimes! But spending time with you is still important to him.

At this age, your child might also:

  • like to tell jokes, many of which will be original - but perhaps not very subtle!
  • write numbers and words more accurately, but she might still confuse some letters - for example, b/d and p/g
  • have better reading than spelling skills
  • begin to understand the value of money and enjoy counting and saving
  • take more interest in her appearance and in clothing or hairstyle trends
  • be better at telling the difference between fantasy and reality
  • talk up her skills or behaviour - for example, 'I can eat 10 hamburgers at once!'

Helping child development at 6-8 years

Here are some simple things you can do to help your child's development at this age:

  • Build your child's self-esteem and self-confidence by recognising his strengths and positive qualities. Sometimes children's self-esteem goes down in the primary school years as they become more self-critical and compare themselves with others.
  • Teach your child that it's OK to make mistakes. Let your child see you trying new things and making mistakes. This helps her understand that learning and improving are all about making mistakes, but the key thing is to never give up.
  • Give your child opportunities to explore and learn, inside and outside. Inside he can experiment with things like cups, thermometers, magnifying glasses and jars for storing things. Outside you could explore your local park or nature reserve together.
  • Set aside some time for free play. Playing is still very important at this age. Let your child choose how she wants to spend her free playtime. She might want to go outside and throw a ball, jump rope or stay indoors and draw.
  • Read with your child. Reading is still very important for your child's literacy development. As your child learns to read, try having him read to you. You can also try literacy activities like telling stories or making your own book.
  • Encourage your child to be aware of the consequences of behaviour and see things from other people's points of view. You can do this by asking questions like, 'How do you think Jane feels when you do that?'
  • Share ideas and discuss important issues with your child. This helps you connect with your child and shows that you're interested in her. As your child gets older, allow her to join in family decision-making where appropriate.

Parenting a school-age child

As a parent, you're always learning. Every parent makes mistakes and learns through experience. It's OK to feel confident about what you know. And it's also OK to admit you don't know something and ask questions or get help.

With all the focus on looking after a child, you might forget or run out of time to look after yourself. But looking after yourself physically and mentally will help you with the understanding, patience, imagination and energy you need to be a parent.

Sometimes you might feel frustrated or upset. But if you feel overwhelmed, put your child somewhere safe or ask someone to look after him for a while so you can take some time out until you feel calmer. Try going to another room to breathe deeply or calling a friend or family member to talk things through.

Never hit or verbally abuse a child. You risk harming your child, even if you don't mean to.

It's OK to ask for help. If you're feeling overwhelmed by the demands of caring for your child, call your local Parentline. You might also like to try our ideas for dealing with anger, anxiety and stress.

When to be concerned about child development at 6-8 years

See your GP if you have any concerns or notice that your child has any of the following issues at 6-8 years.

Communication and understanding
Your child:

  • has a stutter or lisp when talking
  • has difficulty following instructions.

Behaviour and play
Your child:

  • finds it hard to make friends
  • can't skip, hop or jump
  • has trouble sitting still for a long time
  • is aggressive with other children
  • seems to be afraid of going to school, or refuses to go to school (your child might complain about headaches or stomach aches when getting ready for school).

Everyday skills
Your child:

  • can't get dressed or undressed independently
  • experiences daytime wetting or soiling
  • still has regular night-time wetting at eight years.

You should see a child health professional if at any age your child experiences a noticeable and consistent loss of skills she once had.

Children grow and develop at different speeds. If you're worried about whether your child's development is 'normal', it might help to know that 'normal' varies a lot. But if you still feel that something isn't quite right, see your GP.